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9 février 2006 à 18 h 13 min #7730AnonymeInvité
American Society for Microbiology vol.17 No.4 (Oct.2004)
Contamination – re: inanimate surfaces.
Persistence of nosocomial pathogens on inanimate surfaces is important because of the
high rate of acquisition of pathogens on the hands after contact with environmental surfaces.
PATHOGEN DURATION OF PERSISTENCE ON INANIMATE SURFACES
Acinetobacter spp. 3 days-5 mo
B. cereus Unknown
C. difficile >24 h (vegetative cells) up to 5 mo (spores)
E. coli 2 h-16 mo
"Gram-negative bacteria" Unknown
Influenzavirus, 12-48 h
HAV 2 h-60 days
Klebsiella spp. 2 h-30 mo
MRSA 4 wk-7 mo
P. vulgaris 1-2 days
Pseudomonas spp. 6 h-16 mo
Rhinovirus 2 h-7 days
Rotavirus 6-60 days
Salmonella spp. 6 h-4.2 yr
S. marcescens 3 days-2 mo
S. aureus 4 wk-7 mo
VRE 5 days-4 mo
" Yeasts," including Candida spp. 1-150 days
and Torulopsis glabrata
S. aureus can survive on hands for at least 150 min; VRE survives on hands or gloves for up to 60 min.
On inanimate surfaces, S. aureus and MRSA may survive for 7 months, with wild strains surviving
longer than laboratory strains. VRE may survive on surfaces for 4 months. The long survival on surfaces,
together with the relatively short survival on hands, suggests that contaminated surfaces well be the source
of transient colonization despite negative hand cultures.
Most gram-negative bacteria survive on the hands for 1 h or more. Survival on inanimate surfaces has been
reported to be different for the different gram-negative species, with most of them surviving for many months.
In general, gram-negative bacteria survive for longer on inanimate surfaces than on human skin.
Vegetative cells of C. difficile can survive for at least 24 h on inanimate surfaces, and spores survive for up to 5 months.
On fingertips, only 20% of viable cells of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis remain detectable after 1 h.
Candida spp. can survive on surfaces for up to 150 days. During this period of survival, most yeast
cells die within the first few minutes.
Persistence of viruses on the hands has been investigated mainly for fecal
and respiratory tract viruses. Artificial contamination of hand with HAV led
to an immediate-recovery rate of 70.5% (Sattar). HAV persisted for several hours
on human hands (Sattar). With poliovirus, the immediate-recovery rate was 22% but
the whole inoculum was recovered after 150 min, indicating an almost complete
persistence of poliovirus on hands. Rotavirus has been described as persisting
on the hands for up to 260 min, with 57% recovery after 20 min, 42.6% recovery
after 60 min, and 7.1% after 260 min (Sattar). It can be transferred from contaminated
hands to clean hands, with 6.6% of the viral contamination transferred 20 min after
contamination and 2.8% of the viral contamination transferred 60 min after
contamination (Sattar). Rotavirus has been described to persist better on hands than
rhinovirus or parainfluenzavirus (Sattar)
Many enveloped viruses as influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, and cytomegalovirus
may survive on the hands for 10 to 15 min or even up to 2 h (herpes simplex virus type 1).
Adenoviruses have been described to persist on human skin for many hours (Sattar).
Only a few studies of the persistence of viruses on surfaces have been performed.
Rotavirus and HAV can persist for up to 60 days depending on the room temperature,
air humidity, and type of surface (Sattar). HIV remains infective on surfaces for up to 7 days,
depending on the inoculum and the type of preparation (cell-associated virus or cell-
free virus). HIV obtained from clinical specimens remains infective for a few days.
Influenza A virus may persist on steel for up to 48 h; on other surfaces, such as paper
or handkerchiefs, the virus persist for up to 12 h. Rhinovirus may persist up to 7 days.
RSSL MEDICAL SYSTEMS INC.
5354 rue Snowdon
Montréal (Québec) H3X 1Y4
Tél. : (514) 236-7019
Téléc. / Fax : (514) 486-3624
Courriel / E-Mail: [email protected]3 mars 2006 à 9 h 32 min #5873AnonymeInvité
dkljflds3 mars 2006 à 10 h 50 min #5874AnonymeInvité
Merci beaucoup pour l’info. Voici mon adresse courriel au travail;
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